Publications and Reports

Publications concerning Modeling Theory

Hestenes, D.  (1992).  Modeling games in the Newtonian world.  American Journal of Physics, 60 (8), 732-748.

Hestenes, D. (1987).  Toward a modeling theory of physics instruction.  American Journal of Physics, 55 (5), 440-454.

Hestenes, D. (2010). Modeling Theory for Math and Science Education. In R. Lesh, C. R. Haines, P. L. Galbraith & A. Hurford (Eds.), Modeling Students’ Mathematical Modeling Competencies (pp. 13-41): Springer US.

Publications concerning High School Modeling Instruction

Wells M, Hestenes D, Swackhamer G (1995). A modeling method for high school physics instruction. Am J Phys 63:606–619

Hestenes, D., Wells, M., and Swackhamer, G. (1992). Force Concept Inventory, The Physics Teacher 30: 141-158. See also Halloun, I., Hake, R., Mosca, E., and Hestenes, D.  Force Concept Inventory (revised 1995).
Note: the remaining articles are in reverse chronological order.

Dukerich, L.  Applying Modeling Instruction to High School Chemistry To Improve Students’ Conceptual Understanding
J. Chem. Educ., 2015, 92 (8), pp 1315–1319
DOI: 10.1021/ed500909w

Fulmer, G.W. & Liang, L.L. (2013). Measuring model-based high school science instruction: Development and application of a student survey. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22, 37-46.

L. Liang, G. Fulmer, D. Majerich, R. Clevenstine, and R. Howanski, The Effects of a Model-Based Physics Curriculum Program with a Physics First Approach: a Causal-Comparative Study, J Sci Educ Technol vol 21 #1 (Feb. 2012).

Megowan-Romanowicz, C., (2012) Helping students construct robust conceptual models. Models and Modeling: Tools for Scientific Enquiry. M. S. Khine and I. M. Saleh. Dordrecht, Springer.

Hestenes, D., Megowan-Romanowicz, C., Osborn Popp, S.E., Jackson, J. & Culbertson, R.J. (2011). A graduate program for high school physics and physical science teachers. American Journal of Physics, 79 (9), 971-979.

Megowan-Romanowicz, C., (2010). The structure of modeling discourse in secondary science and mathematics classrooms. Modeling Students’ Mathematical Modeling Competencies. R. A. Lesh, P.Galbraith, C Haines and A. Hurford. New York, Springer.

E. Brewe, V. Sawtelle, L. Kramer, G. O’Brien, I. Rodriquez, and P. Pamela (2010). Toward equity through participation in Modeling Instruction in introductory university physics, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 010106.

Megowan-Romanowicz, M. Colleen (2010). The Modeling Method of Instruction in Physics: How to do it! Proceedings of the 2010 Chinese Association of Physics Education and Research Conference. <megowan2010-modelingmethodofinstruction>.

O’Brien MJ, Thompson JR (2009). Effectiveness of ninth-grade physics in Maine: conceptual understanding. The Physics Teacher 47(4):234–239

E. Brewe, L. Kramer, and G. O’Brien (2009). Modeling instruction: Positive attitudinal shifts in introductory physics measured with CLASS, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 013102.

A. Pawl, A. Barrantes, and D. Pritchard (2009). Modeling Applied to Problem Solving. PERC 2009 Proceedings, 51-54.

Jackson, Jane, Dukerich, Larry, and Hestenes, David (2008). Modeling Instruction: An Effective Model for Science Education, Science Educator 17(1): 10-17. ej851867

Malone, K (2008) Correlation between knowledge structures, force concept inventory, and problem-solving behaviors. Phys Rev Spec Top Phys Educ Res.

E. Brewe (2008), Modeling theory applied: Modeling instruction in introductory physics, Am. J. Phys. 76, 1155.

Coletta, V.P., Phillips, J.A. & Steinert, J.J. (2007). Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores. Physics Review – Special Topics – Physics Education Research, 3, 010106.

Coletta, V.P., Phillips, J.A., & Steinert, J.J. (2007). Why you should measure your students’ reasoning ability. The Physics Teacher, 45, 235-238.

Malone, K. (2006, 2007). The convergence of knowledge organization, problem-solving behavior, and metacognition research with the Modeling Method of physics instruction – Part I and II, Journal of Physics Teacher Education Online 4(1) and 4(2). Available at and

Legleiter, Earl (2005).  “Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics” and Minaya, Carmela: “The View from One Classroom”. Both of these teachers wrote a chapter in the peer-reviewed book, Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12, edited by Robert Yager (NSTA Press).

Clewell., B., et. al. (2004). Review of Evaluation Studies of Mathematics and Science Curricula and Professional Development Models. (Urban Institute study commissioned by the GE Foundation). [Note: a review of  data on Modeling Instruction]

D. Andrews, M. Oliver, and J. Vesenka (2003). Implications of Modeling Method Training on Physics Teacher Development in California’s Central Valley, J. Phys. Tchr. Educ. Online 1(4), 25.

Expert Panel Reviews (2001, 2000): Modeling Instruction in High School Physics. (Office of Educational Research and Improvement. U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC)

Publications on college-level Modeling Instruction

Hinrichs, B. and Swanson, D. (2019). Changing the notation for force changes how students say it. Download paper at

Durden, J. and Hinrichs, B. (2019). Identities of participation and non-participation Download paper at

Brookes, D., Hinrichs, B., & Nass J. (2019). Social Positioning Correlates with Consensus Building. Download paper at

Halloun, I. and Hestenes, D. (1987). Modeling Instruction in Mechanics, Am. J. Phys. 55: 455-462.

Vesenka J, Beach P, Munoz G, Judd F, Key R (2002). A comparison between traditional and ‘‘modeling’’ approaches to undergraduate physics instruction at two universities with implications for improving physics teacher preparation. J Phys Teach Educ Online 1(1): 3–7.

Hake, R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66, 64-74.

Halloun, I. A. (2007). Mediated Modeling in Science Education. Science and Education, 16, 653-697.

Hestenes, D. (1997)  Modeling methodology for physics teachers.  In E. Redish & J. Rigden (Eds.).  The changing role of the physics department in modern universities.  American Institute of Physics, Part II, 935-957.

Megowan-Romanowicz, C., Inside Out: Action Research from the Teacher Researcher Perspective. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21: 993-1011

Modeling Instruction: Content & Pedagogy at Florida International University

Unpublished research reports

Modeling-related doctoral dissertations, masters degree theses, and action research reports can be found at

More resources of possible interest to Modelers:

Haag, S., & Megowan, C. (2015). Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness. School Science and Mathematics, 115(8), 416-426. haag-megowan-ngss-paper

Haag, S., & Megowan-Romanowicz, C. (2021). Building Competence in Science and Engineering. Standards, 1(1), 39-52. haag-megowan-building-competence-in-science-and-engineerning-2021

Greenwolfe, Matt (2014). Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot Published by American Association of Physics Teachers in The Physics Teacher. 53(4), pages 205-209 (April 2015).

Brunschwig, F. & Accalogoun, L. B. (2013). Innovations in computer-based simulations to promote student learning. In Finson and Pedersen (Eds.). Visual Data and Their Use in Science Education (pp. 151-188). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc.

Feitosa, Kley (2013). The Effect of Geometric Representation of Vector Operations on the Development of the Force Concept. A unpublished report of classroom action research.

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